Cluster Material

Cluster & InnovationInnovation IndexInnovation Policy

Cluster & Innovation

46) Evolution of Innovation Networks across Geographical and Organizational
Literature on innovation networks has seen them to develop in several different settings. These networks, during their evolution, span firm boundaries and geographic proximity. However, the evolution of innovation networks has not been investigated from the perspective of these two dimensions: geographical and organizational distance. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of innovation networks using a framework of these two dimensions of geographical and organizational distance. In order to find out a pattern, we chose the Information Technology cluster in Bangalore, India, where we find there are firms that operate and innovate within and outside organizations, and have strong links with firms within and outside of Bangalore cluster. The globalized nature of the cluster helps us infer the evolution of innovation networks that takes place across four-phases. We further find that the innovation networks develop within organizational networks and then extend to across organizational networks. Within the first part, the networks start with a non-local nature (phase-1) and develop into local networks (phase-2). However, within the latter part of the evolution, networks develop from local (phase-3) towards a non-local (phase-4) nature.

47) Innovation in India
While literature on Innovation has been growing in recent times, the NKC survey on Innovation is perhaps the first detailed and in-depth quantitative and qualitative survey on Innovation in India (as defined more broadly than R&D) using firm level aggregate statistical data on a nationwide scale, with a sample that includes the top industry leaders as well as a large number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and across varied industrial profiles, ranging from manufacturing and services to diversified businesses.

48) SMEs, Entrepreneurship & Innovation
In this book, to examine the how governments and their agents can boost innovation by improving environments for enterprise creation & innovation in small & medium-sized firms and strengthening the capabilities of entrepreneurs and SMEs. It examines the innovation performance of new firms & SMEs, the factors driving it forward and holding it back, and the implications for policy.,3746,en_2649_33956792_44938128_1_1_1_1,00.html#pub

49) Knowledge Flows and Industrial Clusters an Analytical Review of Literature
A significant amount of research has been done on the industrial clusters in developed and developing countries. The European evidence in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that horizontal collaboration between small and medium sized enterprises could yield collective efficiencies in the form of reduced transaction costs, accelerated innovation through more rapid problem-solving and greater market access. Besides, positive externalities are generated by agglomerations through the availability of: (a) skilled labour and inputs; (b) certain types of infrastructure; and (c) innovation generating informal exchanges.

50) The Road Map for Innovation Success
More organizations are realizing the importance of innovation and its potential to deliver breakthrough benefits to the business. However, most companies are struggling with establishing a systemic approach to innovation (see Figure 8, “Innovation Execution Practices Lag Innovation Intent”). The results from this survey indicate that companies need to take a more formal and rigorous approach to encouraging and managing innovation. This system for innovation takes into account the people, process, and technology aspects, in addition to related factors.

51) The impact of TRIPS on innovation and exports: a case study of the pharmaceutical industry in India
Currently, there is a debate on what impact the implementation of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in India would have on its pharmaceutical industry and health care. The debate hinges primarily on two major questions. First, will the new patent regime provide an impetus for innovation in the pharmaceutical industry? Second, how far will India’s pharmaceutical exports of copied versions of patented drugs to developing countries be restricted under the new regime? The first question seeks to find out if TRIPS will increase India’s innovative capabilities to fill the current vacuum to develop drugs for tropical diseases. The large multinational companies (MNCs) that dominate the global pharmaceutical industry have no interest in commercial ventures that have little potential for great returns on investment. The second question attempts to find a solution to the lack of access to medicine in most developing countries. Indian manufacturers’ supply of reverse-engineered drugs, which cost only a fraction of the prices charged by MNCs, may be coming to an end under the new regime. Against this backdrop, this article attempts to analyse the impact of strengthening intellectual property rights in India.

52) The Theory of Business, Complexity, and Getting Work Done
Dr. Deming used to say that ‘management is prediction,’ by which he meant that every decision is also a prediction about the future. One of the key factors that managers employ in making decisions is their ‘theory of business,’ a thinking framework that is at the same time a philosophy, an approach, and a mental model. Such a theory actually guides and informs all decision making. Leaders and everyone else as well, employ a theory of business, whether they are aware of it or not.

53) Tools for Discontinuous Innovation Research and Development
Discontinuous (also known as “radical”, “GameChanger™”, or “disruptive”) innovations literally “change the game” by transforming existing industries or creating new ones. Successful discontinuous innovations yield significant profits for the winners and significant losses, even bankruptcy, for the losers. In Part I of this paper we give an overview of discontinuous innovation, including a data on some notable successes and failures. In Part II, we describe several tools to aid in the successful execution of discontinuous innovation R&D efforts. The author developed two of these tools, the Business Model Maturity checklist and the Maturity-Readiness Map. The other tools are taken from the existing literature and applied to the specific needs of discontinuous innovation R&D. In Part III, we provide some starting points for implementing the ideas in this paper.

54) Small and Medium Enterprises and ICT
It is commonplace for governments to have policies to encourage the growth of local small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as they can help to directly alleviate poverty by increasing income levels and creating jobs. However, as the global economy becomes increasingly reliant on information and communications technology (ICT) to receive, process, and send out information, the small businesses within the Asia-Pacific region – which form a significant portion of their developing economies – have yet to reap these benefits evenly.

Innovation Index

1. “The Massachusetts Innovation Index Case Study”
Using Porter’s “diamond” model as the reference point for measuring competitiveness, it maps different indicators in an innovation model framework, benchmarking against eight other leading technology states.

2. “Measuring Innovation Efficiency”
Using results from the European Innovation Scoreboard of 2007, the authors apply Data Envelopment Analysis to identify the most efficient performers where “efficiency” is defined as the ratio of outputs to inputs. Such an analysis helps identify to target of policy initiatives.

3. “European Innovation Scoreboard 2007: Comparative Analysis of Innovation Performance”
A guide to methodology for developing an innovation index, it compiles comprehensive data sheets for EU27 member countries and a few more which are then used for trend analysis of indicators and final composite innovation scores for these countries.

4. “Innovation Index” Oregon 2007″
The above paper updates the Innovation Index for Oregon for the year 2007. The first such index for the state was published in the year 2004. The present study adds several new dimensions including an Innovation Grade based on the composite score of 20 innovation indicators.

5. Climate Innovation Centre in Ghana
A climate innovation centre is an institution aimed at enabling development through catalyzing climate technology research, development, market creation and policy. This discussion paper discusses the possibilities, considerations and next steps for a Climate Innovation Centre (CIC) in Ghana based on new insights within the government of Ghana, a mapping of climate innovation in Ghana, new developments in the international climate negotiations and other multilateral processes, and analysis conducted by ECN.
( )

Innovation Policy

1) 7 strategies for sustained innovation
Sustained innovation comes from developing a collective sense of purpose; from unleashing the creativity of people throughout your organization and from teaching them how to recognize unconventional opportunities.
( )

2) How to Promote Clusters: Policy Experiences from Latin America
In this paper we propose to differentiate between three types of clusters when it comes to formulating cluster-oriented policies in Latin America. Survival clusters of micro- and small-scale enterprises owe their existence more to unfavorable macroeconomic conditions and less to entrepreneurial competence and dynamism. Their competitive potential is limited. Support measures should mainly aim at improving the conditions for survival since these clusters are important in creating employment opportunities.
( )

3) Indicators to support innovation cluster policy
The elaboration of a conceptually grounded, easily replicable set of indicators for gauging the current state and future prospects for innovation cluster development is an essential aid for policy makers and stakeholders. In this paper we propose a parsimonious, generic cluster framework comprising six constructs and 34 variables, and describe the process for applying the framework to the analysis of clusters.
(…/Arthurs%20et%20al%20%20indicators%20to%20support%20innovation%20cluster%20policy.pdf )

4) Science and Innovation Policy
Science and technology (S&T) influence society as never before. Scientific achievements continue to push back the frontier of knowledge and increasingly contribute to the technological progress that affects how we live and work. New technologies help to protect the environment, to build safer homes, schools and factories, and to develop energy-saving transport systems. Advances in genetics save lives and improve health standards throughout the world. Information and communications technologies (ICT) have enhanced productivity in the advanced economies and made it possible for a greater number of individuals, firms and countries to take part in the knowledge-based economy.
( )

5) Science, Technology and Innovation Policy in India under Economic Reform: A Survey
The role envisaged for science and technology in national life went well beyond an instrumental view of science and technology in any purely economic view of development. Science and scientific temper were, in a view most elegantly articulated by Nehru, indispensable to the development of a new ethos and world-view that would privilege rationality and a critical attitude.
( )