Cluster Material

Cluster & InnovationInnovation IndexInnovation Policy

Cluster & Innovation

10) Climate of Competition, Clusters and Innovative Performance
The paper explores the impact of industry competition and cooperation on innovation performance of firms. The authors apply LISREL model to test different hypothesis describing relationships between the above three variables using data from a stratified sample of Swedish manufacturing firms.

11) Innovation Clusters in the Decade of the 1990s
Industry clustering for resource sharing of products, knowledge and services has been rising in recent times. The underlying theory is that each firm’s competitive position is dependent on several supporting industries and institutions. This paper explores several dimensions to industry clustering including for example the theory that firms and workers migrate to areas that are innovation centres in any given industry.

12) Clusters- Balancing Evolution and Constructive Forces
This book is the outcome of many years of research around clusters. To show how clusters can be used as a constructive tool, not only for scholars but also for cluster practitioners, for industry, academic, and political leaders, and for civil servants working with clusters, regional development and innovation.
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13) Innovation Clusters: Key Concepts”
The study examines different types of innovation clusters in detail, and as the title suggests, and explains the key concepts.
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14) Innovation Clusters in Latin America”
The authors create a model of innovation clusters which emphasizes the contribution of intangible factors like communication and culture as being as critical as that of tangible factors such as specialized infrastructure. The model is tested using data collected via literature survey, electronic conference and field visits in six Latin American countries. Preliminary results seem to suggest that while no mature innovation clusters exist, several with protoclusters with potential exist.
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15) Clusters Innovation Entrepreneurship
The OECD area, innovation is increasingly concentrated within clusters of enterprises and research/training institutions that work on complementary activities. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that clusters are an important source of innovation and competitiveness driven at the local level. Clusters create an environment conducive to productivity gains, which are a factor of growth, and so form a structure that helps enterprises meet the challenges of international competition. This local dimension of innovation and entrepreneurship nonetheless poses challenges to policy makers because clusters require policies and support schemes that are tailored to local needs.

16) Development of clusters and networks of SMEs: a guide to export consortia
Due to their small size, isolated SMEs often have difficulties to establish an export presence in foreign markets. They lack the necessary knowledge and financial means, may not meet foreign regulatory requirements and the quantities and quality produced are often unattractive for foreign buyers. By combining their knowledge, financial resources and contacts within an export consortium, SMEs can significantly improve their export potential and reduce the costs and risks involved in penetrating foreign markets. Although several types of export consortia exist, the main distinguishing factor is whether export consortia achieve these goals by promoting their members’ products or by selling directly.
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17) Handbook of Research on Innovation and Clusters
This handbook presents a comprehensive overview of research on economic clusters, which will be of interest to scholars doing research on clusters and clustering as well practitioners involved in cluster formation and cluster management. The result is a thorough overview of clustering in high-tech industries, cluster case studies, and cluster policies presented in this handbook.
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18) Just Clusters Economic development strategies that reach more people and places
Strategies for developing a region’s economy used to be relatively straightforward: build the infrastructure and maybe invest in “spec” facilities, train workers, assemble some financial incentives, and keep business costs as low as possible. Various aspects of cluster-based economic development in international, national, regional, and local arenas. Are clusters equitable and just tools for economic development or do they skew resources to those already better off?
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Innovation Index

1. “The Massachusetts Innovation Index Case Study”
Using Porter’s “diamond” model as the reference point for measuring competitiveness, it maps different indicators in an innovation model framework, benchmarking against eight other leading technology states.

2. “Measuring Innovation Efficiency”
Using results from the European Innovation Scoreboard of 2007, the authors apply Data Envelopment Analysis to identify the most efficient performers where “efficiency” is defined as the ratio of outputs to inputs. Such an analysis helps identify to target of policy initiatives.

3. “European Innovation Scoreboard 2007: Comparative Analysis of Innovation Performance”
A guide to methodology for developing an innovation index, it compiles comprehensive data sheets for EU27 member countries and a few more which are then used for trend analysis of indicators and final composite innovation scores for these countries.

4. “Innovation Index” Oregon 2007″
The above paper updates the Innovation Index for Oregon for the year 2007. The first such index for the state was published in the year 2004. The present study adds several new dimensions including an Innovation Grade based on the composite score of 20 innovation indicators.

5. Climate Innovation Centre in Ghana
A climate innovation centre is an institution aimed at enabling development through catalyzing climate technology research, development, market creation and policy. This discussion paper discusses the possibilities, considerations and next steps for a Climate Innovation Centre (CIC) in Ghana based on new insights within the government of Ghana, a mapping of climate innovation in Ghana, new developments in the international climate negotiations and other multilateral processes, and analysis conducted by ECN.
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Innovation Policy

6) Science and Innovation Policy: Key Challenges and Opportunities
Science and technology exert a growing influence on society and the economy. Scientific achievements continue to expand the frontiers of knowledge and increasingly contribute to the technological progress that affects how people live and work. New science-based technologies help protect the environment, build safer homes, schools and factories, and develop energy saving transport systems.
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7) What Indicators for Cluster Policies in the 21st Century?
Interest in innovation clusters has emerged from the recognition that competitive advantage derives not just from firm-based resources and capabilities, but also from resources and capabilities that are located in the firm’s geographically proximate business environment.
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8) What Indicators for Science, Technology and Innovation Policies in the 21st Century?
It has been long understood that the generation, exploitation and diffusion of knowledge are fundamental to economic growth, development and the well being of nations. The widespread diffusion of new information technologies in the 1990s vastly improved the capability of generating, manipulating, and distilling information so that it becomes knowledge, bringing the issue of how knowledge is created, nurtured and used for competitive advantage into the foreground.
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9) Next generation Innovation policy: The future of EU innovation policy to support market growth
This report demonstrates that innovation policy around the world is becoming increasingly complex, and such complexity is even more visible in a multi-level government framework such as the European Union.

10) National Innovation Systems
Systemic approaches are giving new insight into innovative and economic performance in the OECD countries. Technology-related analysis has traditionally focused on inputs (such as research expenditures) and outputs (such as patents). But the interactions among the actors involved in technology development are as important as investments in research and development. And they are key to translating the inputs into outputs. The study of national innovation systems directs attention to the linkages or web of interaction within the overall innovation system.
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